Fact Check的艺术初探


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送交者: Veritas 于 June 29, 2018 17:33:31:[新观察/xgc2000.org]

一曰在确定性中引入不确定性。比方A句是假,B句是真;理工科的呆子们只会问我们是要用AND还是OR来连接这两个句子;而精通Fact Check的艺术的人就会用“A,B”这种方法来引入不确定性。实战举例:(选自 https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/trump-animals-hitler/
Claim: Donald Trump called undocumented immigrants "animals," just as Adolf Hitler called Jewish people "animals."

RATING: Mixture - This rating indicates that a claim has significant elements of both truth and falsity to it such that it could not fairly be described by any other rating.

解析:明明白白的一个问题“Trump是否称undocumented immigrants为animals?”,通过Fact Check的艺术变化,答案就非常的Mixture了。有呆子举手发问第二句Adolf Hitler called Jewish people "animals."好像也是假?这个网页里面不是有说“The exact quote in the Vocal Progressives meme appears not to be attributable to Hitler”么?这样的艺术不敏感者就需要学习下一个技巧。

二曰充分考虑上下文后的自由心证。比方说你问1+1是否等于2;A说是,B说不是。这个时候你就可以说A虽然说的稍有道理,但是Personality Traits有欠缺;而B是Latino,需要肯定;因此A错B对。这里的上下文选择是考验技巧的地方,运用之妙,存乎一心,因此多举几个例子:

例子一: 上面关于希特勒的“名言引用”可以这样解释“but it is nevertheless a fair reflection of his stated views and a blunt summary of the Nazi concept of the “untermenschen.” 配合第一条,效果加倍!

例子二:(选自 http://www.politifact.com/punditfact/statements/2014/mar/04/sarah-palin/palin-i-predicted-obama-win-would-trigger-russian-/
Claim: Palin: I predicted Obama's win would trigger a Russian invasion into Ukraine

RATING: Half True - Her claim is partially accurate but takes things out of context.

解析:这个问题上初看没有艺术的余地,不但Palin说了"After the Russian Army invaded the nation of Georgia, Sen. Obama's reaction was one of indecision and moral equivalence, the kind of response that would only encourage Russia's (Vladimir) Putin to invade Ukraine next." 而且俄国人扎扎实实地进入了乌克兰,Obama的"After my election I have more flexibility"还不计在内。然而一旦使用上下文,则可解释为Palin虽然得到了正确结论,其推理过程没有使用二十一世纪外交哲学,因此实际上Palin的结论并不正确;而当时嘲笑Palin的Foreign Policy专家虽然在Foreign Policy的最终结果上出了错,他们却使用了先进的外交哲学,因此结论虽然错了其实是对的。

例子三:最近Travel Ban的最高法院少数派意见,这个就留作课后作业好了。



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